CẨM NANG KIẾN THỨC CƠ BẢN CHO A LOCAL HOST
Lingo Connector aims to address the needs of two distinct groups; learners of English language and international travelers. English learners will benefit through gaining opportunities to practice using communicative English, while international travelers will derive the benefits of unique and culturally authentic travel experiences facilitated by local insight.
Lời Giới Thiệu
Lingo Connector là dự án cộng đồng để hổ trợ mọi người học và nâng cao tiếng Anh. Website Lingo Connector sẽ tạo platform để mọi người kết nối với người nước ngoài và các bạn học tiếng Anh khác.
Web cũng cho phép users viết bài cho website, như viết về điểm du lịch yêu thích, giới thiệu các events/clubs/festivals, tổ chức các buổi đi du lịch với sự tham gia của người Việt và người nước ngoài; Viết bài giới thiệu các quán ăn, cafe...ở địa phương mà users yêu thích.
Lingo Connector cũng tạo nền tảng để các trung tâm tiếng Anh quảng bá dịch vụ Homestay Tourism cho người nước ngoài. Tây sẽ ở tại homestay và nói tiếng Anh hàng ngày với các học viên.
Lingo Connector cũng hổ trợ tìm kiếm việc làm cho Tây hay các công ty có thể tuyển Tây về làm việc. Ngoài ra, bản thân mọi user cũng có thể tự quảng cáo bản thân để tìm việc liên quan đến tiếng Anh.
Facebook group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/VietnameseFreeTourguide/
MỘT SỐ HƯỚNG DẪN BAN ĐẦU
Để trở thành Member của Lingo Connector rất đơn giản, các bạn chỉ cần like page and join group Lingo Connector. Người ta sẽ hỏi về Lingo Connector, các bạn sẽ giới thiệu là LC is a non-profit project that connects international Travelers with Vietnamese people, mainly English learners, who are willing to be a tour guide for the purpose of learning English and introducing Vietnamese culture to international friends.
Ngoài ra, các bạn sẽ giới thiệu thêm về các tính năng của website Lingo Connector như:
Để hiểu rõ hơn các bạn cần làm gì, các bạn nên in ra và đọc bộ tài liệu tổng hợp dưới đây trước khi bước vào môi trường tour guide thực tế. Yên tâm, chúng tôi luôn ủng hộ và hổ trợ các bạn.
HOW TO START & MAINTAIN A COVERSATION IN ENGLISH
Are you learning English and want to start real conversations with native English speakers? Or perhaps you're learning another language, and would like ideas for how to get speaking practice.
I know it can be scary to start a conversation with someone, or to join a group conversation – especially in your second language. You might be wondering “What do I say?” or “What if I say the wrong thing?” or “What if people think I’m stupid?”
Here’s the problem for language learners: What you learn in the classroom sometimes just isn’t relevant to everyday situations. You would never start a conversation with “How many uncles and aunts do you have?” or “What is the colour of your hair?”
Here’s another problem. All languages – including English – are much more than just a list of words and grammar rules. Language exists for communication. It's about connecting with people. Speaking conversational English is usually just about knowing the right thing to say in any given situation. That’s rarely taught in classrooms.
With that in mind, we answer the question “What’s the right thing to say when you want to have a conversation in English?” You’ll learn questions, phrases and expressions that you can use to confidently start conversations with native English speakers. Think of this as your guide to starting conversations with English speaking strangers in a natural way.
There are two types of situations:
I’ve also included specific phrases and expressions based on the context of where you’re speaking.
Using these phrases will improve your conversation skills, so practice them and soon you’ll be starting conversations in English!
Before we get into the thick of things, I’ll let you in on the mindset you need to have when starting up a conversation.
The fear of speaking to strangers really comes from the fear of seeming “weird” or looking foolish. You're essentially afraid of the other person’s reactions, like a strange look that says “I don’t want to talk to you”, or even someone laughing at you. (Of course, this very rarely happens in real life!).
To be honest, I still experience moments of fear when I start conversations in a language I’m learning. It sometimes takes me a few minutes to get into the flow. Just know that this feeling is totally normal. Try to accept it as normal, and not to worry about it too much.
Step 1: Be Friendly!
The first key to feeling relaxed and getting over your fear is to have a good time and be friendly. Smile and enjoy the experience of meeting someone new. If you can relax and enjoy getting to know someone, then that will be felt by the other person and it will put them at ease.
Talking with someone who is super serious and has a grave expression is rarely enjoyable, so why put someone else through that? Relax your face and turn that frown upside down!
Talk to people as you would talk to a friend, and they may just become one.
Step 2: Take the Pressure Off
A lot of fear around starting conversations comes from putting pressure on yourself to have a certain result from the conversation.
So, stop having specific expectations about what will happen! Whatever happens, happens. Don’t expect anything from yourself or the other person other than getting to know them a little better.
Also, don’t force a topic or be aggressive in what you’re trying to say. That type of energy is a turn-off to someone you’ve just met. Let the conversation flow naturally.
Finally, realize that you don’t need to become BFFs (“Best Friends Forever”) with your conversation partner. There are millions of native speakers out there, so becoming friends with this one person won’t determine your success as an English speaker. If the conversation doesn’t go well, that’s okay. The next opportunity is just around the corner.
Step 3: Remember, the World Doesn’t Revolve Around You
Don’t make the conversation only about yourself. Try to ask questions about the other person’s life. Only interject things about yourself when they are actually relevant to the topic.
What if they ask you a question about yourself? Answer it. But then ask them the same question. Often people ask questions they secretly want to be asked themselves, so turn the question around and see what your conversation partner has to say.
The most important thing is to not be forceful or seem desperate. Bring things up naturally and casually. People should never feel pressured to talk with you, so help them feel comfortable.
Step 4: Be Honest
When asking questions or talking about something, don’t make something up just because you memorized a particular phrase.
For example, don’t say “I love cats too!” if you actually hate cats. Or avoid saying “My uncle works in a factory” when you don’t even have an uncle, let alone one that works in a factory.
Make sure you say things that are true, even if it means searching for the words you need. Otherwise, you could end up in a really awkward situation.
Step 5: Avoid Closed-Loop Questions
Questions that can only be answered with “yes” or “no” are what I call closed-loop questions, because they close down conversation. Open loop questions work much better when your aim is to keep a conversation going.
Let’s look at the difference between these through a couple of examples. Instead of asking the closed question “Do you like apple juice?”, ask the open question “What is your favourite type of juice?”. Or, instead of asking “Do you like spaghetti?” you can ask “How often do you eat Italian food?”
Open-loop questions or else called WH- questions (such as, what, when, where, who, whom, why, and how) invite further discussion, whereas “yes” or “no” questions usually create a hindrance that discontinues the conversation.
Now that you have the right mindset, let’s get into what you can say to start up and maintain some great conversations.
STEP 6: ACCEPT THAT YOUR MISTAKES AND DIFFICULTIES ARE AN ESSENTIAL PART OF LEARNING
Learning a new language is hard. As English learners, we have to accept the fact that we make mistakes when we are mastering the language. It is a natural part of the learning process, and it is the price you have to pay to develop fluency. No one can avoid that natural process, but through it, we learn.
You have to know that even native English speakers make mistakes, especially in conversational contexts. Beginners obviously make more mistakes compared to native speakers. But it is ok, even encouraged, for you to misunderstand a word or a phrase, to misuse or to mispronounce a new vocabulary you stumble upon. You do not succeed in anything in life if you aren't prepared to make mistakes.
It is essential to understand that native speakers do not judge you for making mistakes. Rather, they recognize that you have the ability to connect and communicate and sure enough, they are willing to help you correct your mistake during your English learning journey.
So, put your worry away!
A conversation has specific phases that it goes through. These include starting the conversation, elaborating on a topic, inviting a longer conversation, changing the topic, and closing the conversation.
When talking to someone one-on-one, you’ll find it helpful to look at each phase and figure out your approach for the phase. Here’s a specific structure you can follow:
Phase 1: Starting the Conversation
The best way to start up a conversation with someone you don’t know is to ask a question that's not too personal. Here are some examples of polite questions you can ask to get things going:
Even better, start a conversation by noticing something about the other person and commenting on it in a nice way. Here are some examples:
Note: whatever you see in [brackets] can be substituted for something specific to your conversation.
Phase 2: Elaborating on a Topic
Now that you’ve started talking, you will need to elaborate on the established topic and continue talking.
If they answered your question, you can ask one or two follow up questions to get more details, such as:
Next, provide some context to why you asked them the question in the first place. Here are some examples:
And, as always, if someone is being helpful, don’t forget to thank them!
Phase 3: Extending the Conversation with More Questions
You can usually tell when a person is losing interest in a conversation. If you reach that point, then excuse yourself and be on your way.
However, if you feel like the person may be receptive to a longer conversation, then why not talk a bit more and get to know them better? Here are some more general questions you can ask to keep the conversation going.
Each of these questions can be used to extend the conversation and learn more about the other person. The idea here is to find common points of interest. When they mention something that relates to you and your life, this gives you an opportunity to explore that topic more fully.
Phase 4: Exploring a Topic Further
When your conversation arrives at a topic that you’re comfortable speaking about in English, then this is your chance to discuss it in more depth.
As an example, let’s say that you discovered your conversation partner has a cat. You have a cat too. Time to show some photos of your cat on your smartphone!
Or, if the person mentions they are a vegetarian and you happen to be vegetarian, now you have something in common. Why not ask about their favourite vegetarian recipes?
Here are some sentences and phrases that may come in handy to dive in deeper with a topic:
The idea here is to let them know you share a common interest, then ask them to share more details.
Remember to talk about the other person more than yourself. For example, instead of going off on a long tangent about your favourite recipes, ask them for theirs. It shows that you are truly interested in getting to know them and they will be more open to continuing the conversation.
Phase 5: Asking for Opinions
Everyone has an opinion on something, and many people like to share them with others. Here are some questions you can ask to get the other person’s view on a situation or topic:
Once people start sharing their opinions, you open up the door for a whole new area of conversation. Just be careful not to probe too far into sensitive topics such as politics or religion.
Phase 6: Changing the Topic
Sometimes a conversation can start to fade and you find things are winding down. If you sense your conversation partner is losing interest in talking about your impressive collection of snowglobes, it’s probably time to change the topic!
Here are some ways you can switch to other topics:
Or, if you want to make a more abrupt change, you can just say it directly with:
Phase 7: Inviting Your Conversation Partner to Talk Longer
After about 10 or 15 minutes, it’s worth checking that your conversation partner wants to continue talking. Get confirmation that they want to be in the conversation so you can be sure they aren’t just being polite.
Here are some questions you can ask to see if it’s possible to maintain a longer talk.
These sorts of expressions show that you are being considerate of your conversation partner’s needs.
Phase 8: Closing the Conversation
Part of being a good conversationalist is knowing when to stop talking. When the conversation ends, find a way for them to get in touch with you in the future. If you feel like they might want to chat again, you can give them an opportunity with some of these phrases:
And remember to make them feel appreciated and end every conversation with a positive note!
Not all your conversations are going to be a one-on-one encounter. Sometimes you will be joining a group where others are talking.
The most important skill in group situations is listening. Pay attention to the conversation and interject only when it is relevant.
Many of the phrases you’ve learned so far in this article can work in group situations. You can also add to a group conversation with other types of phrases, such as sharing your experiences or thoughts, asking questions to the group, or making connections between two people.
Here are some phrases you can use:
Sharing Experiences or Ideas
If you have something to add to the conversation, here are a few examples of how you can do it:
You don’t need to share too much, but let the group know that you have more information to add. If they want to know more, they can ask for details.
Asking Questions to the Group
If you notice that some people in a group aren’t participating as much in a conversation you can ask questions for the whole group. Here are some questions to stimulate more dialogue:
Or, you can direct it to an individual. Just be sure not to single them out in an uncomfortable way. Here are some examples:
Making Connections Between Two People
You may realise that two of the people in the group have something in common. You can make people feel included and connected by sharing these observations with the group. Here are some ways to do it:
This can help people feel like a part of the group. Of course, don’t let out anyone’s secrets!
Closing the Conversation or Leaving the Group
If you have to get going and want to excuse yourself from the group, here are some quick and easy ways to do so:
Often what you say directly relates to where you are.
Whether you're in a restaurant, the airport or on the job, you should have some phrases handy to start up a conversation that relates to your location.
In a Restaurant or Cafe
Here are phrases and expressions you can use to start and maintain a conversation in a restaurant or cafe:
Finally, here are some phrases you can use at the end of your conversation:
In Someone’s Home
If you’re visiting someone’s home you’re in luck! There are an endless supply of possible things to talk about. Just look around the house and you’ll see many things to bring up and discuss.
One easy way to get your partner to respond well to the conversation naturally is complementation! Get them talking about something by admiring it!
And here are a few home-specific statements that you can say when leaving someone’s home:
In the Street
Sometimes you bump into someone when you are out and about. They might be sitting on a park bench, or waiting in line at the bus stop. Here are some questions and statements you can use to start and keep up a conversation:
At the Airport
From personal experience I know that airports are often a place where you have to “hurry up to wait”. You rush through customs or security only to sit at the gate waiting for your plane for several hours (or longer if it is delayed). This is a great chance to chat to someone in English. Here are some phrases that can get things started:
Because you’re flying somewhere, odds are you will never see your conversation partner again. That means you don’t have to worry about making a fool out of yourself because your connection with them will be short lived and temporary. Plus, there is a good chance someone you talk to may have some great suggestions about places to see or things to do in your destination city.
On the Job
If you’re working among English speakers, then this is a perfect chance to strike up a conversation. After all, you already have something in common! Here are some phrases you can use to start up a conversation with a work colleague:
You may be a student and find yourself surrounded by English speaking students, or perhaps there is an English speaking student at your school. Why not get to know them better? Here are some questions you can use:
As you can see, you really can make friends anywhere, and you should never be at a loss for a way to start up a conversation.
You’ve been invited to a special event and want to be able to start up a conversation with the people there. The wonderful thing about events is that you automatically have a point of common interest. Just explore that common thread further to weave a full tapestry of interesting conversations.
At a Birthday Party
A birthday party is a fun place to get to know someone and it’s really easy to start speaking with a total stranger. Here are some phrases to help you get going:
At a Wedding
The joining together of two people in marriage is a joyous event, and while you’re there throwing confetti and dancing the Conga, be sure to sit down and have a chat with someone new! Try out these phrases to help break the ice:
At a Sporting Event
A match or game can be a perfect opportunity to make some fast friends. Connecting with others who share a passion for sport seems to automatically create a bond between people.
Here are some questions you can ask at the next big game:
At a Concert or Performance
Music fans love seeing their favourite performers on stage. If you have tickets to an event or are just sitting in a cafe watching someone strum a guitar, be sure to strike up a conversation with other music enthusiasts near you.
Be Friendly, Considerate, and Open Your Mouth!
There you have it. One hundred and twenty five different ways to strike up a conversation and keep it going strong.
Sure, it can be intimidating when you consider talking to a total stranger. Especially when they speak a different language than you. Getting over your fears is the first step, not only in language learning, but in being able to meet fascinating people and make long-lasting friendships.
Just remember these main points:
We’ve covered a lot of potential situations and questions or phrases you can use in each one. But whether you use these approaches or just throw on some random accessories, the goal is to speak at every opportunity.
You’ll notice I didn’t say the goal is to talk for 15 minutes. And I didn’t say the goal is to bring up a specific topic. The only goal is to open your mouth and start talking in your target language.
Getting a conversation started is the biggest hurdle. It is the one action that will have the most significant impact on your language learning (and friend making) success. Be open to whatever happens from that point forward and you will multiply your chances of improving your English.
HOW TO BE A GREAT TOUR GUIDE
Lesson 1: The tour guide duties and responsibilities:
If you plan to have tours that require overnight stays, you need to have a more detailed tour plan, including:
Tour guide responsibilities, to your guests
Tour guide responsibilities to yourself
Tour guide responsibilities to places you are guiding tour
Lesson 2: How to Become a Good Tour Guide
A good tour guide must possess and establish these below factors:
The World Federation of Tourist Guide Associations is an organization that is charged with setting high level professionalism within the tour guiding sector, and has developed a code of guiding practice for its member guides:
One of the key qualifications to be a good tour guide is the up-to-date broad knowledge about the located destination. Each country has its own tour guiding licensing accreditation system. Thus, we recommend that prospective tour guides do thoroughly research in the area they want to follow in order to acquire relevant qualification certificates.
You can begin a career in tour guiding by working in a specific attraction, such as a museum, castle or art gallery. While learning about the attraction is easy as the area of focus is small, once you have established yourself as an attraction or site tour guide, you may then progress to tour guiding in your local area before setting your sights on international tour guiding.
As foundation to any destination or geographical knowledge, a general qualification in tourism is a great place to start. Each country has its own such qualifications, and their content is remarkably similar. Core subjects will include the tourism industry, communication skills, problem-solving, health & safety and dealing with emergencies, presentation techniques, local geography, local culture and history, practical tour guiding in the local area, practical tour guiding in local attractions, tour guiding management and administration.
Lesson 3: Presentation skills for Tour Guides
Public speaking comes under a lot of different forms. The two most important forms required for tour guide work are presentation and commentary. Public engaging, connecting with the guests is a fundamental aspect to being a good host. Commentary is a technique when a host engages his or her visitors on a tour bus, boat or other onboard transportations with commentaries about the upcoming location or any fun facts or comments to keep visitors informed and entertained.
Presentations are usually conducted face-to-face at an attraction or a tourist excite. Vocal delivery is the most important part of a presentation where hand motions, body languages, and tone of voice must be used wisely to increase engagement. A presentation enables the tour guide to show his group that he is enthusiast and devoted to deliver the best for his guests.
Tour commentary planning
For the best quality of any public presentation or commentary, a thorough planning is compulsory and you can achieve it by following these basic steps: understand the needs and interests of your tour group in order to create an interesting schedule; carefully research and gather all the detailed information about the sites to be visited; prepare the text based on these facts and any additional anecdotes that might be relevant; read through the text and practice the delivery until you are confident delivery your speech without the needs to